Crop ecology lecture notes

You must be logged in to post a comment. Thereafter, the VC immediately contacted other Principal Officers and Experts for further contributions. The process to purchase these materials was kick-started by the Director of Health days before the Nigeria case of February 28, Adedeji of Environmental Management and Toxicology in The report on hostel hygiene is being implemented whereas the latter Committee evacuated a sizeable quantity of obsolete items found on campus, some discarded carelessly for years.

These items are already been boarded in line with regulations governing disposal of obsolute materials and junks. As a preventive measure against Lassa fever and other potential health challenges in our hostels, the university embarked on fumigation immediately the students vacated the hostels just as examinations ended in Janaury Although the outcome of the fumigation was satisfactory, the University Management has decided to repeat the fumigation.

Management also proposes to wash the hostels with water and antiseptic before students return. The issue of replacement of old furniture in hostel common rooms is also been tackled as part of the cleaning exercise to enable a fresh environment for our students when they resume.

Management also proposes to sensitize our students, as soon as they resume from vacationon the need for hygienic living in the hostels. We are happy to note that the vast majority of them are reachable and obedient to rules and regulations. Information given appropriately shall be of help.

Leave a Reply Cancel reply You must be logged in to post a comment. Our Health Services Centre has also been appropriately fumigated. Thank you.Sc Agriculture. The courseware material is prepared as per ICAR approved syllabus for the benefit of under-graduate students already enrolled in Indian Agricultural Universities. Disclaimer: The information on this website does not warrant or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of the courseware contents.

The contents are provided free for noncommercial purpose such as teaching, training, research, extension and self learning. Thanks for this team who prepared that…. Apart from the above books, please prepare for Landscapping with Horticulture crops ebook also.

crop ecology lecture notes

Thank you! Sir great effort please also avail entomology subjects and general agriculture papers sir thanks again. Pls send the model question paper for new syllabus. Very useful books but entomology and general agriculture book not found.

Ecological succession

Plz provide these books thank you sir. I am able for for government job or not Please give me some suggestions what I have to do.

Ecology: Useful notes on Ecology

Please sir I am waiting for your reply. That college approved by UGC or not. If approved by UGC than you are eligible for govt job. If not than may be not…. Thankyou so much sir for providing the book. Dear friend aap book ko hindi me translate kar sakte hai…. Now gone to translate now and select pdf book…. I really appreciate hardworking of your team sir, these notes are really helpful and contains all the required relevant information associated with the topics. Thank u so much sir.Cambridge University Press Bolero Ozon.

LoomisD. This book is centred on the 'production processes' of crops and pastures - photosynthesis and use of water and nutrients in fields.

The book is unique in its combination of great breadth and depth in its treatment of production processes and systems problems. The approach is explanatory and integrative, with a firm basis in environmental physics, soils, physiology, and morphology, in contrast to descriptive or reductionist approaches.

Systems concepts are introduced early and expanded as the book proceeds, giving emphasis to quantitative approaches, to management strategies and tactics employed by farmers, and to environmental issues. The systems approach is brought together in the final chapters where production and nutrient cycling are analyzed, for example farms and problems in an uncertain future are considered. The book is based on courses taught by the authors in Australia and the United States and is designed for use as a text for an introductory course in crop ecology advanced undergraduates and beginning post-graduate level.

It is more than a text, however. Given the wide range of subjects, the authors have integrated reference and background material to create a 'stand-alone' reference work useful to a wide audience of agriculturalists. Agricultural systems. Respiration and partitioning. Community concepts. Genetic resources. Physical and chemical environments. Aerial environment. Production processes.

Nitrogen processes. Resource management. Soil management and sustainability. Strategies and tactics for rainfed agriculture. Water management in irrigated agriculture. Energy and labor. Analysis of wheatsheep farming in southern Australia.This section includes handouts summarizing the lectures; note that many of the handouts span two lecture sessions. Introduction, basic concepts PDF. Chemical kinetics PDF.

crop ecology lecture notes

Population modeling PDF. Closed cycles PDF. Networks PDF. Basic thermodynamic concepts PDF. Radiative energy transfer PDF. Open system thermodynamics PDF. Mass transport: advection, diffusion PDF. Present value, discounting PDF. Optimization problems, resource allocation PDF. Derived supply, equilibrium analysis PDF. Multiple objectives, Pareto optimality PDF.

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crop ecology lecture notes

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Lecture Notes on Plant Physiology

Download files for later. Send to friends and colleagues. Modify, remix, and reuse just remember to cite OCW as the source. Lecture Notes. Lecture note files. Modeling: life cycle example 23 Student presentations 24 Student presentations cont. Need help getting started? Don't show me this again Welcome! Chemical kinetics PDF Modeling: dechlorination. Population modeling PDF Modeling: pesticide impact. Closed cycles PDF Modeling: nutrient enrichment.

Networks PDF Modeling: traffic. Basic thermodynamic concepts PDF Modeling: building energy. Radiative energy transfer PDF Modeling: building energy. Open system thermodynamics PDF Modeling: heat discharge to a stream.Lecture Notes: Set No. Name a plant! Duckweed, geranium, apple tree, oak tree, dandelion, algae, redwood tree, carrot, etc. Lots of biodiversity! Plants come in different shapes, sizes. Some are short-lived, others live for hundreds of years. Plants have adapted to a wide variety of habitats, and methods of reproducing and dispersing themselves.

According to E. Wilson in his book, "The Diversity of Life" there are aboutspecies of higher plants i. There are about 26, species of algae. Sedentary Plants don't move about. Modular construction - repeating units due to localized areas of growth meristems ; plants grow at their tips and outward in girth.

Different modules perform specific functions Roots - anchorage and absorption of water and dissolved nutrients. Leaves - absorption of light energy and atmospheric gases carbon dioxide. Reproductive structures; male, female, or both sexes e. Structures that hold spores or seeds as they mature e. Stem - support leaves and reproductive structures, and the link between these modules and the root system. Maximize surface area for absorption of gas, light, nutrients and water.

Cellular level i. Role of plants in the biosphere.Lecture notes on Plant Physiology for your upcoming examination. Compilation of notes on plants physiology.

After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Plant Physiology 2. Need for the Study of Plant Physiology 3. Role of Water in Plant Physiology 4. Plant Physiology Contents:. Note 1. Introduction to Plant Physiology: In plant physiology, natural phenomena operating in the living plants and plant parts are studied. It is a discipline of botany where the structure of the cell, tissues and organs is associated with processes and functions.

The different responses of organisms to environmental alternations and the resultant growth and development which are the outcome of such responses are also studied in plant physiology. A process comprises a series of sequential events operating under natural conditions.

Some of the most important processes operating in plants are stomatal mechanism; water and mineral absorption; photosynthesis, respiration, etc. A plant physiologist tends to understand, describe and explain such processes. The natural activity of the cells, tissues, organs and organisms is referred to as their function. A plant physiologist must understand, describe and explain these functions as well.

These functions are explained at the cellular and molecular levels. In plant physiology, an attempt is also made to study the factors which modify growth and development. In other words, a plant physiologist must understand and explain how external stimuli and factors modify plant responses. In brief, in plant physiology, comprehensive information on the structure, processes and functions operative at the cells, tissues, organs is desired in order to explain the processes of growth and development in an organism.

These days, a plant physiologist must have a sound knowledge of chemistry, biochemistry, physics, statistics and plant molecular biology. In fact, these sciences have contributed immensely in elucidating the functional and structural aspects of plants.

Indeed the development of these sciences has contributed to the evolution and discovery of several instruments and techniques which helped in the elaboration of plant anatomy. A sound knowledge of plant anatomy is essential for interpreting the functions and processes operating in a plant. Several of the plant processes could only be revealed by the use of sophisticated instruments and techniques provided by the chemical and physical sciences.

The availability of the techniques of radioisotopes, antimetabolites, chromatography, scanning, transmission electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry has helped in the elaboration of several processes. In fact, elaboration of cell structure has considerably aided in understanding plant structure in relation to function. The discovery in plants of lysosomes, peroxisomes and other organelles in recent years is the outcome of combined technology of biochemists, biophysicists and anatomists.

Clearly plant physiology is not a static discipline but shall always change and be enrichened by the discovery and usage of new methodology and instruments. This is also a reason why for one process divergent opinions exist. The observations are dependent upon techniques employed while the interpretations are dependent upon understanding of divergent chemical and physical phenomena.

Obviously a plant physiologist is always open to self or other corrections. It is an enlivened science which will change with time and be enrichened with more and increased experiences over the years. Take, for instance, the process of photosynthesis and even the discovery of photorespiration or the processes operating in C 4 plants.

Since plants possess different patterns and habitats as compared to animals it is important to study plant physiology. Plants are also static and possess the capacity to manufacture their own food. Therefore, they possess the capacity to grow and add cells throughout their life span.An aspect of biology which deals with the inter-relationship between biotic and a biotic component as well as the relationships among the individuals of the biotic component is called ecology.

Organisms form interacting systems or communities, these communities are coupled to their environments by transfer of matter and energy and so the communities and environment are interrelated.

A functional system formed by communities and their environment is called ecosystem. Thus ecology is a science of ecosystems or totality of reciprocal interactions between living organisms and their physical surroundings. Clark, M. The things of the world are classified into two major groups namely the living or biotic component and the non-living or a biotic component.

crop ecology lecture notes

The biotic component includes all types of living organisms, both plants and animals and the biotic component includes the non-living materials soil, water, air, etc. The living organisms exist in an environmental setting of which they are a part.

Every aspect of life is influenced by the environment and the activities of organisms affect their environment. It can also be defined as the study of life in relation to environment; the environment being the aggregate of all external conditions and influences which affect the life and development of organisms at a given spot. Recently, Eudgene Odum has defined ecology as the study of the structure and the function of nature.

According to Charles J. KrebsEcology is the scientific study of interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. Smith R. The aggregate of all things; physical, chemical and biological and the influences which affect the life and development of organisms is called environment.

This branch of science that seeks to determine the effects of environmental factors on the growth, distribution and migration of the organisms and also deals with some other aspects of relationship between organisms and those factors is called Environmental Science.

The concept of environment is as old as human civilization. Early people considered science of nature as Natural Philosophy. Now environmental science has emerged as interdisciplinary subject comprising Biosciences, Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Geography and Social Sciences. Ecology, like biology, has been subdivided into plant ecology and animal ecology. Plant ecology deals with the relationship between plants and their environments and animal ecology is concerned with the study of relationship between animals and their environments.

Ethology is the term now generally used by biologists to denote the scientific study of animal behaviour with special reference to the behaviour of animal in its normal environment. In recent years there has grown an idea that in biological organisation the plants and animals are closely interdependent and they react with one another in many ways and at a particular place plants and animals share the same set of conditions and same environment.

Therefore, these two subdivisions, plant ecology and animal ecology should be unified. In view of this reasonable fact, the authors of modem ecology have accounted for the study of both plants and animals in the environment. Autecology is concerned with the study of individual animal or plant species or its population throughout its life history in relation to the habitat in which it grows.

In other words, it is a study of inter-relationship between individual species or its population and its environment. The other area of ecology which deals with systems of many species—whole communities or major fractions of communities and ecosystems is termed Synecology in English speaking countries, or biocenology or bio-sociology by many Europeans. Whittaker, R. It is concerned with the structure, nature, development and causes of distribution of communities.

To understand the ecology of plant communities, the ecological life cycles autecology of at least most important plant species of the communities must first be studied. Thus, autecology forms a basis for synecology.

The study of plant community structure is called phytosociology or plant sociology. The study of plant ecology merges with plant geography or phytogeography.


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